Human Resource Management Courseware

This core course in Human Resource Management is structured in 14 sessions, each containing:

* Core text reading
* Home assignments
* Subset assignment
* Supportive reading

In addition, two sessions are dedicated to reviewing the effectiveness of the courseware.


Contents

Introduction

Human Resource Overview

Vision

Session 1: The Role and Place of Human Resource Management

Session 2: Understanding Organisational Culture, Structure and Systems

Session 3: Organisational Processes

Session 4: Job Requirements, Power and Influence

Instruments

Session 5: Planning to Get the Right People and Reviewing Performance

Session 6: Interviewing; Types, Skills, Preparation for Interviewees, Observers Check List

Session 7: Communications

Session 8: Motivation and Implications for Job Design

Session 9: Management Development

Integration

Session 10: Managerial Styles

Session 11: Managerial Roles

Session 12: Reward Management – The Management of Remuneration

Session 13: Managing Employee Relations

Session 14: Managing Change

Sessions 15 & 16: Review of the Course


 

Introduction and Key Text

This core course in Human Resource Management is structured in 14 sessions, each containing:

* Core text reading
* Home assignments
* Subset assignment
* Supportive reading

In addition, two sessions are dedicated to reviewing the effectiveness of the courseware.

The core course is structured within three parts. The first part, entitled Vision, is intended to provide the Associate with general theoretical knowledge of the subject under discussion. The second part,Instruments, is intended to provide information on important management tools or management methods so that they can be applied in practice. The third part, Integration, is intended to provide the Associate with a platform for understanding the link between the central issues of each core course and other related issues which are of importance to the Associate’s organization.

Although theory will be examined in some detail, the main focus of each core course will be putting theory into practice. Each Associate should, at all times, be able to answer the following three questions:

  • What does the Associate expect to learn from the core course?
  • How can the information learned be put into practice in the Associate’s own working environment?
  • What did the Associate learn from the core course?

It is important that Associates record their answers accurately in their note book.
Activities within each part include:

Home assignments. This is individual preparatory work which the Associate is expected to carry out.

Subsets. This is work performed collectively with other Associates in small groups.

Sets. This is a discussion forum in the form of a tutorial.
Home assignments

Home assignments are divided into components. Each component requires the Associate to formulate a number of questions enabling him or her to select course material to meet his or her own requirements. It is crucial that the Associate is able to formulate tailored questions about his or her working environment. These questions can be discussed in the subset or during tutorials. During the home assignments the Associate is expected to study material from the reading list. The main objective is that Associates learn to use tools which will allow them to put theory into practice in their own organization. Consequently, Associates are expected to concentrate on reading material which is of particular importance to their own working situation.

Subsets

Subsets are closely linked to home assignments. Where appropriate, it will be indicated to which home assignment a subset pertains. Each part will contain a number of subsets which will give Associates the opportunity to discuss problems. Exchanging views with other Associates is particularly encouraged as it is an indispensable part of the learning process. Associates will not only gain a thorough understanding of a specific problem by discussing their views and opinions, they will also acquire an improved ability to pinpoint and solve bottlenecks in their own organization.

Sets

Each part has one tutorial. Home assignments and subsets are intended as preparatory assignments in which the Associate formulates questions which can be discussed during the tutorial. The Associate’s questions are given to the set adviser, who will pass these on to the tutor who can then prepare for the tutorial.

It is crucial that Associates take notes during the home assignments and subsets. In order to ensure this, we recommend using a note book which can later be used as a reference for the Action Learning Project and the Master’s Project.

Rationale

In order to be an effective manager, it is necessary to understand people – how they behave and the approach they take towards their work. Before an individual can begin to understand others, he/she needs to appreciate their own differences, perceptions and abilities, so as to develop working relationships. Managing staff also requires the development of communication skills to facilitate the flow of information that organizations need to function. Developing teams and motivating people demands good interpersonal skills based on a knowledge and understanding of human behaviour.

The ability to plan and organize is an essential requirement for managers. With the drive towards productivity, efficiency and the control of costs, more emphasis is being placed on how managers use their time and the results they achieve. More attention is also being given to the development of decision-making and problem solving skills. With increased pressure to meet performance targets, and more demanding and discerning customers, difficult situations may arise. As a result, managers have to cope with conflict, stress and anger.

Aim

The core course in Human Resource Management focuses on the ‘effective manager’ concept by investigating the key roles and functions of managers and how these may be affected by the culture of the operating environment. The unit aims to provide Associates with the essential skills and necessary understanding of organizations, the human resource factors that exist within them that will enable them to gain a better understanding of their own role within the organization and how they might seek to modify their own position and that of their organization, to mutual advantage.

Learning outcomes

On completion of the Human Resource Management core course, Associates will be able to:

  • Identify the issues and appropriate measures relating to effective managerial performance and the implications for self-development and contribute effectively to the development of organizational units (see Issues for Management Success).
  • Evaluate and critically appraise the roles and functions of managers.
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of self and human resource development programmes.
  • Plan to meet personal development needs m the context of managing transition (see Career Development).
  • Identify sources of dysfunctional conflict and develop strategies for stimulating constructive debate and conflict resolution within the organization.

 

Recommended texts

Charles Handy, Understanding Organizations, Oxford University Press, 4th Edition, 1993.

Mary Jo Hatch, Organization Theory: Modern, Symbolic, and Postmodern Perspectives, Oxford University Press, 1997

Ulrich, D., Human Resource Champions, Harvard Business School Press, 1996

Moss Kanter, R., When Giants Learn to Dance, Touchstone Books, 1990

Garratt, B. The Fish Rots from the Head, HarperCollins Business, 1997


Human Resource Development: Subject Overview

The modern world of work is all about change; change as we have never known before. Whether you are public, private or the rather curious newly emerging public/private bodies, it does not matter. If you want to survive and succeed you have to master the process of change. Out have gone all the ideas which had their roots in the old corporatist industrial world; in have come new ideas with the individual as their focus, the market as their philosophy, and ability as their currency.

In the new world you are no longer judged by what you are, but by what you can do, and what your customers think you can do. In the new world your competitors are no longer from your local community, your county, region or even your country. Anyone in the world who can afford it has access to your technology; they also have access to your market and to your customers; they may even have access to your staff and colleagues. Your competitive edge is in your skill and knowledge and the ability of your organisation to get the best out of its people – better than anyone else.

The contrast between the old and the new is well-illustrated in current management theory. On the one hand we have the classic, standard, well-established theories of management and organisational behaviour. On the other we are beginning to see the emergence, particularly over the last few years, of a new body of thinking. Both are of value, both help us understand the world of work much better, both should be used to the full, and the purpose of this article is to give you a quick trip through the mainstream.

There are many theories of motivation. Mitchell (1) describes it as the degree to which an individual wants and chooses to engage in certain specific behaviours. In other words, motivation is the driving force within an individual through which they attempt to satisfy a need by achieving a particular goal. Maslow (2) sees it in terms of a hierarchy of needs where each level acts as a motivator and once a particular need has been satisfied it is no longer a motivator. This means that only unsatisfied needs are a motivating influence. Alderfer (3) sees things in much the same way but with three levels rather than five. He also sees it in terms of a continuum rather than a hierarchy. Herzberg (4) adopts a kind of stick and carrot approach. On the one hand he identifies what he calls hygiene factors which an organisation needs to satisfy in order to avoid demotivating its staff. On the other he identifies motivators which are needed to create a positive attitude to work. McClelland (5) identified three main motivators of Affiliation, Power and Achievement which vary between individuals and jobs.

McGregor’s (6) Theory X and Theory Y, however, is probably the best known of all the classical statements. He has two sets of propositions, each of which have two quite different sets of implications for management style. The first of these, Theory X, assumes the average individual is inherently lazy, lacks ambition, is resistant to change, and dislikes responsibility. Theory Y on the other hand assumes exactly the opposite. At its most simplistic, therefore, the implications are that managers have to be more or less directive depending on the type of individual they are dealing with.

In contrast, some of the newer thinking focuses on a completely different kind of approach – Empowerment. Although the current state of the art is still in its infancy, quite a lot of research is beginning to emerge and quite a number of people are beginning to write and talk about it. McGregor might argue this is definitely Theory Y country, but it is very different in its approach and it represents the way forward.

In many ways, current thinking around Empowerment represents a change away from the old style corporatist thinking of the industrialist age, to the new age of information. It dismisses the old notion from scientific management that if behaviour cannot be observed or measured it is not worth bothering about, and concentrates instead on getting people to develop their talents to the full. It is pragmatic; it is about giving people responsibility and getting them to think and do for themselves; it is about giving people power over themselves and their work; it is about investing skills and knowledge. It argues this is the way to survive and succeed in a world of constant and never-ending change.

Culture is all about the way we do things around here. Handy (7) argues there are probably four different types of culture: power, role, task and person. Power is typically found in small organisations. It is characterised by an absence of rules, procedures and bureaucracy. Decisions are largely taken on the basis of influence rather than logic, and the decision-making process is concentrated in the hands of a few key individuals.

Role culture is more typically found in large bureaucracies. It is very much the opposite of Power culture and is very largely characterised by rules, procedures, hierarchies and logic. It is not so dependent on individuals. It is also far less inclined to flexibility and innovation.

Task culture is extremely adaptable, very highly focused and usually found in Project Teams. It is very much a team culture where influence is spread more widely through its members and the task tends to provide such a strong unifying force that individual objectives and concerns are very largely ignored. Individuals usually find they have a high degree of control over their work, they are very largely judged by results, and working relationships are fairly easy and relaxed.

Person culture is relatively rare. It is not found in many organisations but is often found in particular individuals. In this culture the individual is the focal point and the organisation’s purpose is to support the individuals within it. Influence is shared and individuals more or less do whatever they are good at. Co-ordination and control in these kinds of organisations are generally very difficult, if not impossible, and their ability to handle major changes to their environment are highly questionable. Some would argue this kind of culture is still found in many of the western world’s universities.

So much of Handy, what about some of the newer thinking. Tom Peters (8) argues all the old ideas about culture and the way organisations see themselves have to be more or less turned upside down. His vision of how to survive in an ever-increasing world of change chimes in very strongly with the empowerment idea. For him the only thing that matters is the customer; he argues survival is all about getting and keeping customer loyalty.

In practical terms, what he means is that organisations have to be driven from the bottom by people who are closest to its customers. Organisations have to shift away from the old top-down cultures and concentrate instead on empowering their people at every level and devoting all corporate energy to supporting and enabling highly decentralised local units. He sees all planning and control functions having to be flattened and adapted to conform to this new approach.

James Belasco (9) takes a similar kind of line. He sees the big test of survival lying in an organisation’s ability to understand, adapt and respond to its environment as it is, rather than as it would wish it to be. Like Tom Peters, he also argues the need for a continuing cycle of empowering change through vision; through individual and organisational development; and through constantly looking ahead, preparing the ground, developing strategies, and acquiring the resources to achieve change. Essentially, what he is looking for is a sense of urgency, of commitment, and of a need to empower people to achieve.

Rosabeth Moss Kanter (10) sees the modern culture as all about adding up to more than just the sum total of an organisation’s individual parts. She argues modern organisations’ current management and career patterns will all have to change if they are to survive. She identifies three major strategies as the recipe for success. First, to seek that combination of businesses, array of internal services, and structure for organising them that promotes synergies – a whole that multiplies the parts.

Second, developing close working relationships with other organisations, extending the company’s reach without increasing its size. Strategic alliances and partnerships are a potent way to do more with less. They permit the Company to remain lean, controlling costs, while gaining access to more capacity than what is owned or directly employed.

Third, to actively promote newstreams – a flow of business possibilities within the firm. To do more with less … means being able to capture and develop opportunities as they arise, to ensure that good ideas do not slip away and that new ventures are ready to join the mainstream business or lead the company in new directions.

She also argues the need for managers and professionals to develop completely new sets of skills in order to: operate without the might of the hierarchy behind them; compete in a way that enhances rather than undercuts co-operation; operate with the highest ethical standards; always willing to learn; respect the process of implementation as well as its substance; work across organisations to develop synergies which multiply value; gain satisfaction from results and be willing to be judged by results.

Handy’s (7) conclusion about the state of the art on leadership theory is that it needs to be brought together. He sees three types of approach: trait theories, which basically mean identifying individual characteristics which make for success; style theories, which are all about democratic or authoritarian styles of management and contingency theories which focus more on contextual issues – particularly the task and the work group. He comes up with a Best Fit approach which basically means fitting the factors from all three together to produce a kind of preference list or order of priority to suit an individual leader, his/her working group and the particular set of circumstances they find themselves in.

Rosabeth Moss Kanter (10) sees it in equally complex but far more pragmatic terms. Her basic proposition is that leadership is all about communications and influencing. For her the new style of post-entrepreneurial organisation is flatter, more varied and much more outward looking. She also sees the old distinctions between managers and those they manage as disappearing fast. This means that new-style leaders have to be much more flexible, far less conscious of boundaries and much more willing to learn, adapt and look for new ways to motivate people.

Mintzberg (11) captures Kanter’s spirit perfectly in his approach to strategy development. He sees the essence of successful modern leadership as all about the ability to continuously craft and mould organisational strategy on a bottom-up basis. This flies in the face of traditional practice and chimes in very closely with Tom Peters hands on approach to corporate leadership. Again, it is all about involvement, getting close to customers and those who work with them, developing commitment and working with the world as it is and not as you would wish it to be.

The trouble with much of the standard classical theory is that most of it was written in the sixties and seventies for a social and economic order which has very largely changed and moved on. The old post-war orthodoxy about the world and his dog has given way to new ideas, new cultures, new technologies and new centres of political and economic power. The world has changed and will go on changing and many of our old assumptions and certainties will have to change too.

What the old theories offer, however, is a valuable insight into human behaviour; what they lack is a clear idea of how to do it in practice. The new thinking, on the other hand, is nearly all anecdotal and hands-on, but at the moment it lacks any real intellectual depth. But at least the arguments are moving forward in a way that most practising managers can understand and relate to.

In all of this, however, the bottom line is that people are vital to the success of any organisation and knowing and understanding what people are all about is crucial to any manager. There are a great many theories, countless pieces of research and any number of views about the people side of research and any number of views about the people side of management and organisations. This article attempts to point to some of the more important of them. But the important thing about IMC is that we are interested in theory only in so far as it helps solve real, live practical problems; and modern academic thinking about what is important in HRD is moving closer to our kind or approach. For all that, however, our message is a relatively simple one; get hold of the knowledge, make sure you do something with it, and make it your servant not your master.
References

 

  • Mitchell, T.R., Motivation: New Directions for Theory, Research, and Practice Academy of Management Review, Vol. 7, No. 1, January 1982, pp. 80-88
  • Maslow, A., Motivation and Personality, Harper and Row, 1954, ISBN 059382000S
  • Alderfer, C.P., Existence, Relatedness and Growth, Collier Macmillan, 1972
  • Herzberg, F., Work and the Nature of Man, World Publishing Company, 1966, ISBN 059309000S
  • McClelland, D.C., The Achieving Society, Van Nostrand, 1961, ISBN 012462000S
  • McGregor, D., The Human Side of Enterprise, McGraw-Hill, 1960, ISBN 059263000S
  • Handy, C., Understanding Organizations, Penguin Books, 1985, ISBN 0140226230
  • Peters, T., Thriving on Chaos, Macmillan London Ltd, 1988, ISBN 0333454278
  • Belasco, J.A., Teaching the Elephant to Dance, Hutchinson Books, 1990, ISBN 0091744903
  • Moss Kanter, R., When Giants Learn to Dance, Simon and Schuster, 1989, ISBN 0671617338
  • Mintzberg, H., Crafting Strategy, Harvard Business Review, July/August 1987
  • Bennis, W., On Becoming a Leader, Hutchinson Books, 1989

 


Session 1 – The Role and Place of Human Resource Management

Vision

Learning Objectives

At the end of this session you should be able to:

* Comprehend the importance and fundamentals of Human Resource Management;
* Define the kind of problems which arise in managing people;
* Understand the importance of the role of communications in Human Resource Management.
Home Assignment 1/1

Before reading any further, write in 500 words what you currently understand the purpose of Human Resource Management to be. List the skills that you think a modern Human Resource Manager needs.
Home Assignment 1/2

Consider the following questions:

  1. What are the two types of necessary information for the organisation?
  2. How influential should Human Resource Management be in assisting the communication for each type of information and in what ways can such influence be exerted?
  3. Explain the key issues affecting HRM in knowledge intensive organisations.
  4. Explain the relationship between Communications and Organisational Strategy.
  5. Discuss the relationship between Communications and Organisational Culture and Values.

Subset 1

  1. In your own organisation what are the strengths and weaknesses of the information channels – those that are task related and those that are people related?
  2. Can you show how your organisation is developing in terms of knowledge based working and what the implications are for its communications style and systems.
  3. Please explain your own organisation’s business strategy and assess how it relates to its communications strategy.

To complete this session and bearing in mind your readings, analysis and discussion, remind yourself (and others) of your original definition of the purpose of Human Resource Management and the skills required. Put your original comments in context and add any aspects that have arisen from this session.


Session 2 – Understanding Organisation Culture, Structure and Systems

Vision

Learning Objectives

At the end of this session you should be able to:

* Comprehend the factors which determine the nature of the organisation.
* Identify the organisation culture of your own organisation.
* Analyse the effect of culture on your own organisation’s functions and systems and the effect on your own role.
Home Assignment 2/1

Consider the following questions:

  1. What do you understand by organisation culture?
  2. What factors influence it?
  3. What are the differences between role culture and task culture? From the readings and notes made, discuss and summarise in a group with colleagues the culture and structure of your own organisation and how this relates to:
    1. Task specialisation.
    2. The application of output criteria, e.g. products.
    3. The application of functional criteria, e.g. technical.
    4. The four types of successful organisation structures specified in ”What do we mean by organisation structure and systems?”

Home Assignment 2/2

Using examples, answer the following questions:

  1. How does the concept of TQM relate to Organizational Culture.
  2. Assess the extent to which organizational design can be optimised using a systems approach.
  3. How organisations successfully respond to changes in their environment.

Subset Assignment 2

Consider the following questions in the context of your previous work in this session:

  1. The effectiveness of co-ordination within your organisation.
  2. Whether the culture and structure of your organisation is good enough to fit the strategic issues for your organisation. If not, why?

 

Session 3 – Organisational Processes

Vision

Learning Objectives

At the end of this session you should be able to:

* Refer to a framework and a model to analyse organisation problems.
* Analyse the effect of organisational processes on the individual.
* Comprehend the fundamentals of designing organisational processes in different organisations.
* Apply the learning from Session 2.
Home Assignment 3/1

In order to help your understanding of the theoretical concepts involved please consider the following questions:

  1. What are the pros and cons of standardisation versus diversification?
  2. What does a decentralised organisation offer its managers?
  3. How are controls reflected in organisations?
  4. How feasible are different targets for individuals – what is their influence on structure/system?

Home Assignment 3/2

Using examples, discuss:

  1. How well Empowerment is being implemented.
  2. The main symptoms and effects of badly designed and structured organisational processes.
  3. The implications of growth and change for the way work processes are structured.

Subset Assignment 3

Discuss the following questions :

  1. What culture and organisational structure are you most suited to?
  2. From your knowledge of organisational processes, what do you think of the Personnel Manager’s diagnosis, in terms of identifying the real problems?
  3. Consider, what factors are influencing your organisation. What would be the good and bad points of standardisation? Of diversity? Of centralisation versus decentralisation?
  4. How is communication being affected by organisational structure?

 

Session 4 – Job Requirements; Power and Influence

Vision

Learning Objectives

At the end of this session you should be able to:

*Comprehend ways of defining the expectations of employees.
* Identify models which will assist in getting things done through other people.
* Comprehend ways of gaining commitment from people and fulfilling expectations.
* Analyse the implications of power and influence in terms of getting things done.
* Relate skills and practices to the task of managing others and in particular to getting things done effectively.
* Relate the concept of supportive management to yourself and your subordinates.
Home Assignment 4/1

Consider the following questions, with colleagues if possible:

  1. Which of the three phases of the productivity model poses most difficulty to you?
  2. What methods and communication events could one utilise to improve the effectiveness of this phase?
  3. In terms of power and influence, what is being used in this productivity model?
  4. What are the five sources of power for a manager?
  5. How does the exercise of power contribute organisational culture and development.
  6. How can competence and competency models contribute to organisational and individual development.

Subset Assignment 4

Applying what you have learned discuss

  1. what you could do to make any improvements in your own job.
  2. how power is exercised in your own organisation and how effectively managers delegate.

Now refer to your Learning Log

  • What are your key learning points from these sessions?
  • What implications are there for your department and organization?
  • What have you learned that impacts on your current role?

Note down your answers to these questions in your Learning Log, together with other questions and observations the sessions have generated that is relevant to you, your role, and your organization.


 

Session 5 – Planning to get the Right People and Reviewing Performance

Instruments

Learning Objectives

At the end of this session you should be able to:

* Use a framework from which to plan to meet organisational recruitment’s needs.
* Be able to meet the first priority for effective selection: the production of a clear person specification.
* Comprehend the effective processes for reviewing performance.
* Comprehend and relate to your own organisation the value and applications of performance appraisal.
Home Assignment 5/1

Drawing on your background reading, consider the following:

  1. Describe and discuss a selection of models available to managers for recruiting and matching people to jobs.
  2. What do you consider are the main factors which need to be built into an effective performance appraisal system?
  3. What do you consider are the manager’s responsibilities in reviewing individual performance and why?

Subset Assignment 5

Consider the following questions:

  1. Review your organisation’s procedures for identifying job and person requirements when recruiting and means of appraising performance.
  2. Draw up a personnel specification for a job you have held or would like to hold. Individually note down what you believe to be the top two objectives in your appraisal scheme.
    These then should be listed describing why you feel your points are important.
  3. How useful is performance appraisal? (in practice and from points taken from the two readings).
  4. Whose responsibility is it to make performance appraisal more useful?
  5. Which conditions for effective appraisal may be missing in schemes you know, and what can be done about it?
  6. When does improved performance result?
  7. What did you learn from doing your own personnel specification? Why?

This session has concentrated particularly on creating check lists of actions you can take in your organisation to improve selection and performance appraisal. Take 10 minutes to prepare your own action plan on these subjects.


Session 6 – Interviewing

Instruments

Learning Objectives

At the end of this session you should be able to:

* Distinguish the main types of interview which are essential parts of the processes of Human Resource Management.
* Formulate the specific objectives of different types of interviews.
* Prepare appropriately for different interviews.
* Assess and apply the basic techniques of interviewing in different situations.
Home Assignment 6/1

  1. With a colleague, consider examples of interviews where you have not been sure ”what that was all about”. Consider whether there were problems in the objectives or in the process, and, from what you have read, what could have improved the interview.
  2. Use the exercise entitled Responses (Anbar AIS Reference 036) with a group of colleagues. Determine which response you would choose to attain what kind of result. Compare your reactions and then generate other statements and appropriate responses for differing situations and results.
  3. In a small group discuss the differences in approach, objectives, preparation, process and techniques involved in different types of interview.

Subset Assignment 6

Consider the following:

  1. What recruitment techniques are most commonly used in your organisation and how effectively do they support business needs?
  2. How effective is the contribution your organisation’s performance appraisal system makes to business needs?
  3. How effectively does your organisation’s investment in training and development contribute to business needs?

Session 7 – Communications

Instruments

Learning Objectives

At the end of this session you should be able to:

* Identify the principles of good communications.
* Comprehend the channels of communication and assess the barriers to communication.
* Focus on conflict as a prime barrier to communication and relate it to interpersonal problem solving.
* Focus on defensive behaviour and ways of overcoming or reducing it.
* Differentiate between aggressive and assertive behaviour.
Home Assignment 7/1

Please consider the following questions:

  1. Why am I communicating? To what purpose?
  2. Who will receive my message? What do I know about them?
  3. Where will they be when they get my message? When?
  4. What do I want to say? What do they need to know? How shall I communicate? Write; phone; personally?
  5. What are the key requirements for effective communications?

Home Assignment 7/2

  1. Think privately of someone who is regarded as a poor communicator. What does this mean in practice? Would you think someone who is shy is a bad communicator?
  2. Where does language come into communication?
  3. It is sometimes said that a certain organisational climate will encourage and support good communication. Discuss this idea within your group.
  4. Identify the main barriers to communication and think of ways that they can be overcome.

Subset Assignment 7

  1. How effectively does your organisation communicate its vision and aims to every employee?
  2. What are the main factors which influence the way communications work within your own organisation?
  3. What are the main channels of communication in your organisation and how effectively do they work?
  4. How good are managers in your organisation at listening to others?

Session 8 – Motivation and Implications for Job Design

Instruments

Learning Objectives

At the end of this session you should be able to:

* Apply current theory on the subject of motivation to Human Resource Management in practice;
* Review the problems associated with motivation;
* Diagnose the causes of human behaviour;
* Link knowledge of motivation to job enrichment programmes;
* Assess behaviour modification techniques as an alternative approach.

Motivation can seem a difficult concept to define, yet it is a vitally important “self” skill for the manager in managing others effectively. By completing these tasks and working through the recent readings, you should be able to begin to construct your own working definition. It is important that you are able to do so, and to think through the application of motivation theory within your work context, in particular, in relation to job design.
Home Assignment 8/1

  • Which statements on motivation theory seem most interesting to you;
  • Analyse and prepare for discussion your views on the extent to which these statements about motivation apply in your own organisation;
  • Prepare for discussion some proposals on how you might change aspects of your approach to management in the light of motivational theory.

Create your own checklist of the points which:

  1. help you in managing others
  2. help you to understand your own behaviour.

Which theories do you find most useful?
Home Assignment 8/2

Discuss in a group and summarise the points to the following questions:

  1. What are the main factors affecting motivation at work?
  2. What have been the major changes in motivation theory?
  3. What is the major characteristic of the behaviour modification approach? Why is it more relevant to managers?

Subset Assignment 8

Please consider the following questions:

  1. Assess the effect of empowerment on motivation.
  2. Discuss the influence of Organisational culture and values on motivation.
  3. How effective is performance related pay as a motivator?
  4. What links are there between teamwork and motivation?
  5. What is morale like in your own organisation and what are the key factors influencing it?
  6. From your own experience describe examples of both good and bad management practice in motivating employees.

Session 9 – Management Development

Instruments

Learning Objectives

At the end of this session you should be able to:

* Link issues of management development with organisation culture and organisation development.
* Recognise the requirement of a flexible approach towards management development.
* Assess the processes of management development.
* Comprehend where the interests and responsibilities for management development should lie.
* Consider needs analysis issues in designing management development programmes.
Home Assignment 9/1

Drawing on your background reading, consider the following questions

  1. Discuss the current state of management development.
  2. What are the main implications of the Learning Organisation for Management Development.
  3. Consider the role of Competencies in Management Development.

Subset Assignment 9

  1. What have been the most powerful influences on the development of my own effectiveness?
  2. What processes are currently used in organisations for the development of people?
  3. How effective are those processes?
  4. In what ways could I take steps to improve my own development?
  5. In what additional ways could I help others?

From the answers above, as a group, produce quickly for each of your organisations an action list of ”what my organisation does for effective managerial development”.
Discuss the following:

  1. How far and in what ways are you able to use others to learn?
  2. What action plans can you make in this respect?
  3. How far do you help others learn?
  4. How can you best help your colleagues, subordinates, work-teams and discussion group members?
  5. Would this type of training and organisation development work in your organisation?
  6. What do you see as the role of the consultant/trainer?

Now refer to your Learning Log

  • What are your key learning points from these sessions?
  • What implications are there for your department and organization?
  • What have you learned that impacts on your current role?

Note down your answers to these questions in your Learning Log, together with other questions and observations the sessions have generated that is relevant to you, your role, and your organization.


Session 10 – Managerial Styles

Integration

Learning Objectives

At the end of this session you should be able to:

* Assess managerial styles and their appropriateness in different situations;
* Apply research findings on managerial styles when identifying the appropriate approach for particular situations;
* Identify predominant management styles in organisations and match managerial styles to organisations;
* Identify your own managerial style and any necessary modification to improve effectiveness.
Home Assignment 10/1

Consider the following questions:

  1. Define what you consider to be the meaning of managerial style.
  2. List the different influences that have produced your own style.
  3. How far are these influences in each style consistent with each other?
  4. How much emphasis have you consciously given to your managerial style?
    Home Assignment 10/2

    1. Compare examples of different management styles from different organisations and identify the key influencing factors.
    2. How far in general have managers adapted their styles towards greater empowerment and accountability?
    3. What are the key developments in theories of management?

    Subset 10Consider the following questions:

    1. Is there a predominant style in your organisation?
    2. Discuss views on how you have developed your managerial style.
    3. Consider how your style compares with the one that you have identified as appropriate for your successor. Is there anything that you could do to modify the way you behave as a manager?

Session 11- Managerial Roles

Integration

Learning Objectives

At the end of this session you should be able to:

* Comprehend the different repertoire of managerial roles required by different jobs;
* Analyse the way you do your job and the changes that can be made to improve effectiveness;
* Assess from a research base what managers actually do and differentiate the myths of management from the facts;
* Help others in the managerial roles of their jobs.
Home Assignment 11/1

Consider the following questions:

  1. What is the role of the manager?
  2. How far does the role of manager compare between large and small organisations?
  3. What are the key issues managers have to resolve?
  4. Assess the notion that the role and style of managers differs between men and women.

Subset Assignment 11

A list of role descriptions are given on the analysis sheet headed ”The Managerial Roles” (below). These are based on the works by Charles Margerison.

  1. Analyse your job, using the headings given.
  2. Consider what you have learned about the content of your job and the way in which you perform it.
  3. Consider what you could do personally to change the way you perform.
  4. Consider how your organisation could usefully change the way it encourages you and others to perform.

The Managerial Roles

To what extent does my job demand that I take on the following roles?
Give scores from 1 to 10 with higher scores indicating more important tasks.
Make a note of those which have changed in importance over the past year.

Figurehead Role

      Ceremonial: awards, public speaking, ambassador.

Group Leader Role
Managing a group to resolve problems and agree a course of action.

Liaison Role
Making contact with other groups to resolve problems and get work done.

Monitor Role
Scanning and getting information from the relevant environment. Understand relevance of information and effective monitoring.

Disseminator Role
Passing on information gathered to those who need it.

Spokesman Role
Proclaiming the message of the office to the outside world through PR, sales or similar activities.

Entrepreneurial Role
Actively developing new ideas, innovate and develop the organisation into a new form.

Resource Allocator Role
Deciding who gets what in terms of work, rewards budget and other resources.

Disturbance Handler Role
Responding to, withstanding and coping with unexpected changes, conflicts and pressures in the work situation

Negotiator Role
Bargaining as an integral part of getting the job done, whether it be with staff, colleagues or people outside the organisation.


Session 12 – Reward Management

Integration

Learning Objectives

At the end of this session you should be able to:

* Comprehend the role of reward management and relate it to motivation theory and techniques;
* Identify the place of performance appraisal within reward management;
* Differentiate between rewards and incentives;
* Appreciate the considerations and practical constraints of various remuneration systems.
Home Assignment 12/1

Referring to the readings consider the following questions:

  1. Why is it difficult to establish the influence of money?
  2. What are the main roles of money?
  3. Why is pay largely a compensation rather than an incentive?
  4. What factors influence organisations in determining the wages and salaries they pay?

Home Assignment 12/2

In your answers to these questions provide examples of organisational reward programmes which support your points.

  1. Why are trade unions and management likely to have different views on the basis for financial rewards?
  2. What implications are there for companies setting up reward management policies with the move towards making individual performance the prime indicator for pay reviews?

Consider in your answer the elements of performance appraisals, bonus schemes and profit share, motivation, team building and non-cash incentives.
Subset Assignment.

Consider the reward policies in your own organisation and others with which you may be familiar:

  1. What is the policy, are its objectives clear and does it achieve the desired result?
  2. What is the significance to you of the reward policy?
  3. What kind of changes might be necessary, how could they be implemented and what would be the likely outcome?

Session 13 – Managing Employee Relations. Contemporary Issues in Employee Relations

Integration

Learning Objectives

* Contemporary issues in employee relations.

In preparation for this session you should have been collecting appropriate press cuttings for a number of weeks. Look out for articles which approach the same topic from different viewpoints. Make notes on them and record your observations on how you think these issues might affect the country in general and your organisation in particular. Discuss the findings in your group or with your colleagues.

This area of study is devoted to the reading, analysis, discussion and interpretation of a selection of quality local newspapers and journals.

Step One is for the tutor in agreement with the set to identify and allocate a selection of core newspapers and magazines to different Associates.

During the programme a series of discussions are arranged concerning the issues raised in the core and ancillary publications. Participants are invited by the tutor concerned to present what they see as:

  • the key issues in general;
  • the relevance of these for the region in particular;
  • the relevance internationally;
  • the relevance for their own enterprise.

Each manager should maintain a portfolio and brief discussion notes.

Each manager must annotate the various issues raised against the impact analysis framework set out on the courseware pages provided, i.e. economic, social, political, technological, legal, institutional and competitive dimensions. Be sure you discuss where each issue has impact – it could be in more than one field.
Home Assignment 13/1

Discuss the following questions:

  1. What is the difference in meaning between consultation, involvement, participation, negotiation?
  2. What do you think is involved in the apparent movement towards greater consultation, involvement and participation?
  3. “Managers have the trade unions they deserve” – discuss.

Home Assignment 13/2

  1. What are the key elements in formally negotiated relationships with groups of people?
  2. What are the processes involved in effective relationships with groups of employees?
  3. Identify the major influences on the way employee relationships are managed.

Subset Assignment 13.

  1. How significant a part do trade unions play in your organisation? Are there other groups of employees that require formal consultation and/or negotiation? Do you expect this to change, and in what direction?
  2. What are the main characteristics in your organisation of formal employee relations, e.g. consultation procedures, negotiation procedures, issues – pay, holidays, hours, work practices etc?
  3. What are the major influences concerning the way employee relations are managed?
  4. What are the major issues involved in changes in the legal context? (This is a question about the issues, not about the detailed changes.)
  5. What level of adherence do companies and trade unions display towards the law? Why? – give examples.
  6. If your organisation is unionised, into which of the patterns does it fall? What are the implications?
  7. Can you distinguish between the ”espoused” and ”operational” Industrial Relations Policy of your organisation?

Session 14 – Managing Change

Integration

Learning Objectives

At the end of this session you should be able to:

* Comprehend the stages involved in resistance to change.
* Apply key principles and concepts in bringing about change.
* Propose methods of managing the change process.
* Assess strategies for change and ways of coping with change.
Home Assignment 14/1

Using examples, consider the following questions:

  1. Discuss current thinking on how to promote responsiveness to changing customer needs.
  2. Analyse the kind of impact change has on individuals and discuss the implications for management.
  3. Discuss the contribution organisational change models can make to the day to day task of managing change.

Subset Assignment 14

Consider the most significant changes in which you have been involved over the last 12 months.

  1. What were the origins, objectives, processes, problems and results?
  2. What could have been done to manage the change more effectively?
  3. What different actions would you take yourself if faced with another significant change?
  4. What actions would you recommend your organisation should take?
  5. Identify a significant change in which you are likely to be involved and prepare a plan for it.

Session 15 & 16 – Course Review

Now refer to your Learning Log

  • What are your key learning points from these sessions?
  • What implications are there for your department and organization?
  • What have you learned that impacts on your current role?

Note down your answers to these questions in your Learning Log, together with other questions and observations the sessions have generated that is relevant to you, your role, and your organization.

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